Improving simulation tools for assessing the long-term responses of forest carbon storage to forest management alternatives in Nordic countries
Coordinator: Jari Hynynen, LUKE, FI,
Funding: 250 000 SEK/year
About the project
Assessing the role of climate factors in association with spread of invasive Phytophthora species in forests and from urban landscapes
Coordinator: Michelle Cleary, SLU, SE
· SLU Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre
· University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry
· Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO)
· University of Copenhagen, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management
· Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering
· Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Forestry
· SLU Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
· Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre
· County Administration Board of Skåne
· Malmö City, Gatukontoret
Funding: 313 000 SEK/year
This is what it will be about:
Forestry is one of the major economic engines of Nordic countries as well as a sociocultural icon. However, climate change and increasing international trade of plants and plant products are presenting major challenges to the health of forests that potentially threaten the forest sector’s sustainability. Over the last 200 years, the number of invasive forest pathogens introduced to Europe has increased exponentially (Santini et al. 2013). Outbreaks of forest disease caused by both native and introduced forest pathogens are predicted to become even more frequent and intense with climate change as drought and other abiotic stressors are amplified under the predicted climate scenarios. However, uncertainty pervades these predictions about the future impacts of forest diseases, in part because the effects of climate change on host-pathogen interactions are complex.
Several species within the genus Phytophthora belong to a group of microscopic pathogens responsible for major plant disease in many parts of the world. By destroying the trees’ fine roots, these pathogens disturb nutrient and water uptake, thereby reducing the fundamental vitality of trees, leading to instability and premature death of trees. Some devastating Phytophthora spp. are also airborne (e.g. P. ramorum). In contrast to most forest diseases that impose a threat to one specific host species (e.g. ash decline), Phytophthora-pathogens are a potential threat against a broad range of tree species, including both conifers and broadleaved trees.
Over the last 15 years, the prominence of Phytophthora tree pathogens in Northern Europe has increased dramatically. This is believed to reflect a marked increase in the introduction and spread of invasive Phytophthora spp. via imported planting stock. However, the situation is probably not due to the increasing global trade of plants alone, but also connected to changes in climate conditions over the last 60 years, i.e. increased mean winter temperatures, seasonal precipitation shifts from summer into winter, and a tendency for heavy rain; all factors favoring infection by several species of Phytophthora.
The impact of climate change on the virulence and spread of Phytophthora species found in Nordic and Baltic countries is unknown. Research elsewhere in the world with different Phytophthora pathosystems suggest that these pathogens may benefit from changes in environmental conditions due to climate change (Brasier 2003), because anticipated warmer winters with winter rain and more regular summer drought conditions with higher temperatures will favour pathogen activity. A critical climate change component to the virulence of Phytophthora species is temperature. Changes in temperature (both air and soil) may cause the disease to develop also in areas at higher altitudes and more northern latitudes than present; that is, forest types currently considered too cool for disease development. In Europe, some research already predicts that the increasing temperatures associated with climate change will lead to a potential range expansion of some Phytophthora species of up to a few hundred kilometres (Bergot et al. 2004). In addition, it is predicted that in areas where rainfall will exceed 600 mm per year, there is likely to be an increase in microorganisms’ activity.
Nevertheless, limiting factors might also appear in areas of drought because Phytophthora spp. rely on flagellate zoospores swimming in free water, and therefore requires adequate soil moisture and spaces between the soil particles filled with water, to spread (Desprez-Loustau et al. 2006, Fitzpatrick et al. 2008). In an effort to understand the potential impacts of Phytophthora species in Nordic and Baltic countries in the face of climate change more knowledge is needed on how host, pathogen and soil interactions, will play out under changing climatic conditions.
- SNS-121 – Policy brief (PDF)
- SNS-121 – Annual report 2019 (PDF)
- SNS-121 – Annual report 2017 (PDF)
- SNS-121 – Annual report 2016 (PDF)
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from organic forest soils: improved inventories and implications for sustainable management
Coordinator: Dr. Raija Laiho, LUKE, FI
Funding: 500 000 SEK/year
This is what we will do:
Organic soils, particularly at northern latitudes, are critical in the context of climate change, as they act as a key source or sink for all three main greenhouse gases (CO2 , CH4 and N2 O). According to the national GHG inventories (2012), total GHG emissions from organic soils in managed forest land in the EU equalled 17.5 mill. tonnes annually, and 98% of the emissions from organic forest soils are reported in the Nordic and Baltic countries.
The total area of forest land on organic soils in Nordic and Baltic countries reported in the national GHG inventories is 11.6 mill. ha (92% of organic soil reported in forest land in EU). Only CO2 and N2O emissions from organic soils were reported until 2015. Countries are reporting these emissions using either Tier 1 methods, i.e., default emission factors (EF) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), or Tier 2 methods, i.e., country-specific EFs based on scientific reports. Both approaches are characterized by high uncertainty; e.g., the default EF for CO2 has 90% uncertainty level, which heavily affects the uncertainty of the whole GHG inventory.
In 2014, IPCC approved new guidelines for the GHG inventory, the so-called Wetlands supplement. Having relatively small impact on the GHG inventories in Central and Southern Europe, these guidelines introduce a significant change in the GHG inventories of the Nordic and Baltic countries due to the implementation of new default EFs for organic soils and introduction of new emission categories, such as CH4 and DOC emissions from soils and drainage systems. For all Nordic and Baltic countries, the emissions calculated based on the new guidelines will be higher than previously, even if the Tier 2 approach is applied. Implementation of the default EFs in the GHG inventory would increase the reported CO2 emissions from organic soil in the Nordic and Baltic region by 57 mill. tonnes, and N2 O emissions by 16 mill. tonnes annually. The new total emissions (CO2 , N2O, CH4 and DOC), assuming that all countries implement the new default EFs for drained organic soils, are 82 mill. tonnes CO2 eq., which is + 467% in comparison to 2012.
There are still considerable uncertainties in the climatic response of management of organic soils. Several studies have shown that some drained organic forest soils can be CO2 neutral or even sinks of CO2. This is also reflected in the confidence limits of the IPCC default EFs that may reach negative values. Also, there are publications proposing considerably smaller EFs for N2O and CH4. However, no comprehensive evaluation and synthesis of these seemingly contradictory findings has been published. Yet, there are indications that the nutrient regime of the soil, water-table level, temperature climate and vegetation characteristics are key constraints of the emissions, which suggests that reliable, country-specific EFs could be formulated through data collation and modelling. This would further be important for an objective evaluation of the impacts of land-use changes and land management options on GHG emissions, and for designing guidelines for effective measures to improve the C neutrality of forest management on organic soils.
The aim of the project is to produce
- a synthesis report of the CO2 , N2 O, CH4 and DOC emissions from organic forest soils in the Nordic and Baltic countries;
- Tier 2 EFs for the key sources of GHG emissions in organic forest soils in the Nordic and Baltic countries, based on collated data and modelling;
- a catalogue of GHG mitigation measures for forest management on organic soils
- a common research agenda for future research to fill in any identified major data gaps
WOOD-PRO: Valorization of WOOD biorefinery PRO-ducts into novel functional hydrocolloids
Coordinator: Docent Kirsi S. Mikkonen, University of Helsinki, medicine FI firstname.lastname@example.org
Funding: 500 000 SEK/year
This is what we will do:
Plant polysaccharides form a chemically and functionally diverse group of biopolymers, whose applications range from structure-forming components in food, suchas starch in bread, to hydrocolloids, i.e., thickeners, gelling agents, encapsulating agents, adhesives, fat replacers, and emulsifiers in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. The potential use of hydrocolloids depends on their safety, production costs, and technological properties.
The industries are constantly seeking new and superior alternatives to be applied in the widening markets; ideally, the hydrocolloids should be plant-based, non-allergenic, and cost-effective and bring additional functionality to the product.
The modern forestry biorefineries provide a variety of sustainable constituents that can be valorized into economic and ecological novel materials, such as hydrocolloids. Cellulose, the main component in wood, has found new, promising fields of use as a result of the advancing nanotechnology.
Nanofibrillation or controlled hydrolysis can be used to obtain cellulosic materials with a variety of different morphologies and aspect ratios. Hemicelluloses, including xylans and mannans, are the most abundant plant polysaccharides other than cellulose. They are biosynthesized in large quantities in trees, but their industrial utilization is minor in comparison with the use of cellulose.
Decreasing consumption of printing paper has created the need for new types of industrial processes utilizing all components of wood. In many current lignocellulosic refining processes, hemicelluloses are partly degraded, they are removed and burnt, or further used as feed raw material. However, methods for separation and isolation of high molar mass hemicelluloses have been developed to efficiently separate the wood components into pure fractions.
The development of biorefineries has potential to revolutionize the operation of forestry industry to manufacture new advanced products and promote economic growth. The necessary techniques for the preparation of nanocelluloses and the isolation of hemicelluloses from wood or pulp already exist, and it depends on the application potential whether their recovery is worthy of industrial investments.
In this project, we develop innovative novel applications that efficiently exploit the unique properties of wood polysaccharides. The amount of potential raw material from the forestry industry is significant and can provide new Nordic products and applications. In the proposed project, cellulose and hemicelluloses will be upgraded into hydrocolloids, emulsifiers and stabilizers in dispersed systems.
Previous data by the applicants show that nanocelluloses and hemicelluloses are highly functional in such complex matrices. LTU has previously showed that nanocellulose from vegetable sources is re-dispersible even after drying, unlike that from wood, and the project aims at finding the reason for this specific behavior.
We hypothesize that the vegetable nanofibers have different surface characteristics compared to wood based nanofibers. It is also highly interesting to study if hemicellulose and lignin could act as dispersants for wood nanocellulose in different liquid media. We aim at explaining the dispersibility of nanocellulose by studying their viscosity, transparency, and nanostructure. PFI has previously studied use of nanocelluloses as stabilizer of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions and rheology modifiers, and also preparation of stabilized hydrogels by covalent crosslinking of cellulose nanofibrils. The influence of various additives such as salts and plant-based surfactants on system stability will be further studied in the proposed project. Latest results by UHe showed that softwood galactoglucomannan and its carboxymethyl derivative are efficient emulsifiers and stabilizers of rape seed oil in water.
The aim of this work is to establish thorough understanding of the functioning conditions and parameters enhancing or limiting the applicability of nanocelluloses and hemicelluloses as hydrocolloids. To achieve this, emulsions, gels, and emulgels will be prepared and their physical and physicochemical properties will be characterized.
This project will explore innovative ways to utilize the wood components, especially hemicelluloses that are currently largely unexploited. Furthermore, the project will open up new prospects for the food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics industries, by gaining knowledge and understanding on the functionality and applicability of wood polysaccharides as novel, plant-based and sustainable hydrocolloids. In addition, the project has potential to promote the use of health-beneficial foods, by enabling the structure formation and stabilization of dispersions with reduced fat content and/or promoting the use of healthy, polyunsaturated lipids.
This project establishes new collaboration between the Nordic partners linking their ongoing research projects, promoting the exchange of know-how and ideas, and aiming at economic, sustainable, and functional use of our abundant natural resources: wood polysaccharides.
Ecological effects of intensive biomass harvesting in the Nordic and Baltic countries (2013-2014)
Project leader: Nicholas Clarke, Skog og Landskap, Norway, email@example.com
Financing: 200,000 DKK in 2013 and 300,000 DKK in 2014
In conventional timber harvesting, branches, tops and stumps are left in the forests. Removal of these parts for bioenergy may have ecological consequences. As a large part of the nutrients in trees are located in the needles and branches, removing these will reduce nutrient supply to the soil. In the long term, this might both increase the risk for nutrient imbalance and reduced forest production and affect biodiversity by changing species composition. However, field experiments have found contrasting results for both soil chemistry and ground vegetation.
There is a need for more knowledge about which factors determine these differences, or of how variation in these factors affects long-term site sustainability. In the Nordic and Baltic countries, much work has already been done on these problems, and further integration of the knowledge obtained in the countries has the potential for greatly increasing our understanding of the mechanisms responsible. In a long-term perspective, the project results will contribute to sustainable forestry and thus assist in protection of the environment where forest is harvested for bioenergy production.
The two overall aims of the project are:
– To build a Nordic-Baltic database and use it for doing a meta-data-analysis in order to quantify the ecological effects of forest biomass harvesting in the Nordic/Baltic countries on: (i) soil nutrient stores, (ii) soil carbon stores, (iii) quality and quantity of soil, surface and ground waters, and (iv) biodiversity.
– To write a review paper about the obtained results.
- SNS-118 – Annual Report 2013 (PDF)
- SNS-118 – Final Report (docx)
- SNS-118 – Final Economic Report (PDF)
- Policy Brief – No longer available
Preventive and restorative measures to reduce damage on forests – Phythoptora diseases in focus (2013-2015)
Project leader: Jan Stenlid, SLU, Sweden, firstname.lastname@example.org
Financing: 300,000 DKK/year for 3 years
During the last century, epidemics of pathogens from the genus Phytophthora have destroyed forest ecosystems worldwide, causing both enormous economic losses as well as significant ecological damage. Phytophthoras are especially unpredictable due to inherent capacity to rapidly adapt and change behavior (host jumps and hybridization). There is a strong association between the worldwide spread of these pathogens and plant trade via nurseries.
Phytophthora diseases pose emerging threat for forests of North Europe. On the other hand, as the pathogens prevailingly originate from forest nurseries and are transferred to forests with infected planting material, this provides opportunity for disease prevention and restoration of infested sites. Yet, in order to do this, identity of the pathogens and their distribution must be known.
The project has roots in the SNS pilot project ‘Risk assessment and establishment of a system to address potential pathogens in Nordic forestry as a result of climate change’ and interacts with the SNS-EFINORD financed ‘Nordic and North-European network Phytophthora diseases of forest trees’. The project aim is to assess the identity and distribution of Phytophthoras in key pathosystems, and to elaborate on preventive and restoration measures.
- SNS-117 – Annual Report 2013 (PDF)
- SNS-117 – Annual Report 2014 (PDF)
- SNS-117 – Scientific Article by Redondo et al 2015 (PDF)
- SNS-117 – Economic Report (PDF)
- SNS-117 – Final Report (PDF)
Exploring novel oxidative biocatalysts for tailored wood fibre modification (2013-2015)
Project leader: Vincent Eijsink, Universitet for miljø- og biovitenskap, Norge, email@example.com
Project partners: Claus Felby, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, firstname.lastname@example.org and Maija Tenkanen, University of Helsinki, Finland, email@example.com
Financing: 300,000 DKK/year for 3 years
The forest industry is needed if we are to create a future bio-economy because it can both deliver renewable energy and materials. This needs, however, courageous research in areas that are likely to create new options for value-creation from wood. While the conversion of wood to renewable energy is already receiving much attention, value-creating wood applications in the area of fiber engineering and production of new biomaterials are not yet as widely explored, while they might in fact turn out to be of higher value.
One presently growing market is regenerated cellulose for films and fibers, which are estimated to replace increasingly cotton-based materials in textiles. There is much interest in applying nanofibers from wood pulp, in novel papers, films, composites, gels, foams, representing a second innovative application area. A third growing field concerns fiber-based packing materials, which are expected in the future to possess different functionalities, e.g. due to the application of innovative enzyme technologies. Clearly, new concepts for nanofiber formation and/or functionalization of cellulosic materials may find usage in a wide range of different applications.
The primary aim of the project is to bring together expertise and ongoing projects to create a platform for novel sustainable enzyme-based oxidation techniques for controlled modification of wood-derived fibers.
- SNS-116 – Annual Report 2013 (PDF)
- SNS-116 – Annual Report 2014 (PDF)
- Final Economic Report – no longer availabl
- Final Activity Report – no longer available
Workshop on the “Nordic forest sector in the biobased economy – challenges for political science and economics. Conceptual paper and special issue. (2013)
Project leader: Anders Ross, SLU, Sweden, firstname.lastname@example.org
Financing: 355,000 DKK
Advancing toward a bioeconomy involves economic and policy challenges: designing of appropriate regulations, stimulating information exchange, getting incentives right, and supporting knowledge development. The private sector must, for its part, innovate green products and develop new competitive and sustainable business concepts. This warrants a better understanding of how policies and market forces shape conditions for the bioeconomy.
The economic and political sciences can advance the insights about these kinds of relationships, and consequently contribute to the adaptation of the forest sector to a bioeconomy. A Nordic workshop, and resulting publication, is one effective way to stimulate dialogue on this topic.
The workshop was held in Uppsala 28-29 August 2013.
Risk assessment of new forest tree species
Project leader: Professor Erik Dahl Kjær, Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen. email@example.com
Financing: 150.000 DKK for 1 year
This project is a desk study as described in the call – Short-term scientific projects within the Selfoss declaration on sustainable forestry.
The project will review, compile and discuss knowledge from Norway, Sweden and Denmark regarding the trade-off between ecological risk and the usefulness of exotic tree species in the context of climate change. The project will also review policies form Iceland and Finland for comparisons.
Risk assessment and establishment of a system to address potential pathogens in Nordic forestry as a result of climate change.
Project leader: Jan Stenlid, Professor in Forest Pathology, Biocenter, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, SLU. firstname.lastname@example.org
Financing: 149.000 DKK for 1 year
The anticipated changes in climate change, together with the globalisation of international trade in plant and wood products, is expected to lead to an increase in new introductions of forest pathogens in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Invasive forest pathogens (mostly fungal pests) have already caused a number of international catastrophes to forest trees all over the world. The best known case is Dutch Elm Disease which has devastated elm populations in both Europe and North America. Future threats to Nordic and Baltic forests influenced by climate change include Dothistroma needle blight and Doplodia shoot blight on pines and Phytophthora ramorum on multiple hosts. Even in a pathogen is already present in a country, disease severity may increase with changes in climate in the future.
In order to prevent future disease, it is important to improve disease monitoring and to understand the pathways by which pathogens can be introduced and spread. There are two main mechanisms by which pathogens can spread: natural pathways including the movement of fungal spores on air currents or by insect vectors and human-mediated pathways such as nursery stock or wood products. Any warning system developed to monitor the introduction of forest pathogens needs to examine both sets of pathways and understand the risks posed by each. This proposal aims to outline a comprehensive monitoring and warning system for forest pathogens in Nordic and Baltic countries to reduce the impact of forest disease in the future.
Improving market communication of wood products’ environmental values (pilot study)
Project leader: D.Sc. (Econ) Tarmo Räty, Metla – Finnish Forest Research Institute, email@example.com
Financing: 340.000 DKK for 1 year
The pilot study will consider the views and deployment of Environmental Performance Measures (EPM) from both the supply and demand side of the wood markets. It will a) review EPMs that are currently being applied in the woodworking industry and in the industries they supply material for (e.g. construction) and b) compare EPMs with the other explicit and implicit environmental indicators that are generally used among different costumer groups and among influential stakeholders (e.g. ethical funds, ENGOs) and government agencies.
In this pilot research the consortium will also develop the main project proposal that will assess potential use of environmental performance measures of wood product markets in a number of Baltic and central-European countries.
- Download full working paper “Communicating the Environmental Performance of Wood Products”(PDF).
- SNS-112 – Final report (PDF)
- SNS-112 – Executive summary (PDF)
Forest preferences as affected by field layer characteristics (2011-2013)
Project leader: Anders Busse Nielsen, SLU – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, firstname.lastname@example.org
Financing: 111.000 DKK/year for 3 years
The aim is to conduct joint preferences studies in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Besides identification of preferences on a national level, this research approach will, for the first time in the Nordic countries allow for i) direct comparative analysis of preferences between Nordic countries and ii) synthesize results into a systematic knowledge-base about Nordic citizens’ forest preferences as affected by field layer characteristics.
Leaching of carbon, nitrogen and phosporus from forest land in the Nordic and Baltic countries (2011-2013)
Project leader: Associate professor Lars Högbom, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, email@example.com
Financing: 370.000 DKK/year for 3 years
The overall aim is to quantify carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosporus (P) leaching in the Nordic and Baltic countries, in order to describe the background leaching from forest land as well as to quantify losses following various forest management operations (i.e. clear felling, site preparation, ditching, and ditch cleaning, N fertilisation and wood-ash recycling). These estimates will be based both on soil solution data in plot studies and run-off data from the catchment studies.
- SNS-110 – Policy and Research Brief (PDF)
- SNS-110 – Final Economic Report (PDF)
- SNS-110 – Final Report (PDF)
Decline of Fraxinus excelsior in northern Europe (2010-2012)
Project leader: Rimvydas Vasaitis, SLU, Sweden, firstname.lastname@example.org
Financing: 50.000 Euro/year for 3 years
The current spread of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) dieback is an alarming forest health problem, threatening the existence of the tree species in large parts of Europe. A new Nordic-Baltic project, supported by SNS, will increase our understanding of the disease and develop strategies for reducing its impact.
The first symptoms of ash decline were observed in the southern Baltic States in the mid-1990s. In 2002 the disease had been observed only locally in southern Sweden. However, in the summer of 2004 it spread throughout the south, towards western and central parts of the country. In 2003-2004, dieback was first noticed in Denmark, where it spread rapidly in 2005-2008. In 2007-2008, the disease had also emerged in Norway and Finland. Consequently, the epidemic is now in differing stages in different areas of northern Europe: an initial phase in Finland and Norway, peaking in Sweden and Denmark, and a post-decline (or chronic) phase in Latvia and Lithuania.
The fungus Chalara fraxinea has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of the dieback. It has recently been identified as a form of a common, decomposing fungus (Hymenoschyphus albidus), which is native and widespread in Europe, and known to decompose ash in the forest litter. It is not known why it has emerged, or become so aggressive. However, the pathogen could be an invasive hybrid, or an indigenous species that has become more virulent recently, possibly because the trees have been weakened by stresses, such as those associated with drought, changes in temperature or frost.
In a new project, a team of researchers from Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Lithuania and Latvia will:
- Check the identity of the dieback-causing fungus Chalara fraxina, and assess its potential invasiveness
- Investigate if climatic factors affect the development of the disease
- Study the genetic structure, biology and epidemiology of the fungus
- Suggest silvicultural management regimes for declining ash stands
- Evaluate long-term phytosanitary consequences in regions devastated by the disease
- Assess the degree of genetic variation in susceptibility of the Nordic ash population, in order to guide breeding programmes to counter C. fraxinea
Satellite-based mapping of the growing season in northern Fennoscandia and neighbouring parts of Russia (2009-2011)
Project leader: Docent Anne Tolvanen, email@example.com
Financing: 50.000 Euro/year for 3 years
Many recent phenological monitoring studies have shown that the timing of spring onset has advanced due to climate warming. This gradual climatic change may have considerable implications for plants’ growth and reproduction, especially in regions where plants grow near their distribution limits.
The project “Satellite-based mapping of the growing season in northern Fennoscandia and neighbouring parts of Russia” will develop new methods to map the onset and end of the growing season with the aid of satellite-image analysis. The study will cover changes in Northern Fennoscandia and adjacent parts of north-western Russia over the period 1982–2010. The output will be a time-series that should be valuable not only for seasonal studies, but also for developing tools for monitoring phenomena such as forest disturbances.
The project is a cooperation between Finland, Sweden and Russia.
Xylan modification for added value wood products (2009-2011)
Project leader: Docent Ewa Mellerowicz, firstname.lastname@example.org
Financing: 50.000 Euro/year for 3 years
Wood hemicelluloses are some of the most important components of biomass on the Earth, constituting approximately 25% of total wood biomass. Xylan is the main hemicellulose in hardwoods, and it also occurs in softwoods. Thus, its structure is likely to have major effects on properties of raw wood materials, e.g. its pulping/delignification properties and mechanical parameters.
The project “Xylan modification for added value wood products” will utilize genetic engineering to modify the structure and content of xylan, and establish how these modifications affect wood properties. The modified xylan may be used to produce custom-tailored wood properties.
Aspen will be the main species used for the studies, which involve partners from Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The project is an extension of a previous project on poplar xylan within the Wood-Wisdom network.
Askåterföring – långtidseffekter på trädtillväxt
Project leader: Ulf Sikström, Sweden.
Klimatförändringens potentiella påverkan på granbarkborren i Skandinavien
Project leader: Anna Maria Jönsson, Sweden.
Sustainable management of North European Forests (SuMaNEF), preparation of FP7 proposal, EU-aktivitet
Project leader: Johanna Witzell, Sweden.
Ny teknologi för förbättrad information om virkesresurser – utveckling av ett integrerat informationssystem
Project leader: Johan Holmgren, Sweden.
Environmental effects of shorter forest rotation in a landscape perspective
Project leader: Jan Weslien, Sweden.
Forestry and use of wood to mitigate climate change
Project leader: Ljusk Ola Eriksson, Sweden.
Project leader: Gudmundur Halldorsson, Iceland.
A Permanent Mapping Population for genomics of Picea Abies
Project leader: Martin Lascoux, Sweden.
Wood hemicelluloses for surface modification of fibrils
Project leader: Maija Tenkanen, Finland.
Skörd av bioenergi i unga skoger
Project leader: Tomas Nordfjell, Sweden.
Project leader: Fredrika von Sydow, Sweden.
Estimation of carbon storage in forest biomass
Project leader: Karin Hansen, Denmark.
Identifisering av ektomykorrhizasopp i Nordiske skoger
Project leader: Trude Vrålstad, Norway.
Structural timber quality in Norway spruce
Project leader: Björn Hannrup, Sweden.
Lärkvirkets härdighet vid använding av ovan mark
Project leader: Andreas Bergstedt, Denmark.
Nordisk IUFRO tynningseksperiment på nordisk gran
Project leader: Jens Peter Skovsgaard, Denmark.